(A) Cartoon schematic of the new construction sand source-to-sink system. (B) Example of a river sand mine in Malaysia. (C) Example of a typical concrete batch plant. Note stockpiles of sand in upper left awaiting mixing into concrete. (D) Summary of global consumption of construction aggregates. Uncertainty envelope is estimated using the conventional proxy of 6.5–10× cement consumption (Peduzzi, 2014; UNEP, 2019). Sed.—sediment.